Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin - Faculty of Life Sciences - Social and Organizational Psychology

Research


On this page you find information about our main fields of research, references and projects



blue.gif Innovative capability through codetermination ( Scholl, Breitling, Janetzke, Shajek)

blue.gif Processes of Power and Social Influence ( Scholl, Klocke)

blue.gif Social Cognition and Symbolic Interaction ( Scholl, Schröder)

blue.gif Group Research ( Scholl, Klocke)

blue.gif Innovation, Information and Networks ( Scholl, Witzlack, Immig)

blue.gif Mobility ( Scholl, Prasse, Klocke, Bachmann)

blue.gif Knowledge Management ( Scholl, Meyer)

blue.gif Emotional Ability ( Turß)

blue.gif General Theoretical Work ( Scholl)

blue.gif Participation and Co-determination ( Scholl)

blue.gif Computer Mediated Communication and Internet ( Scholl, Prasse)




  Innovative capability through codetermination

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Background

Economic competition is increasingly becoming an innovation contest. Therefore innovations become a prerequisite for employment creation and economic wealth, and companies’ actual and future innovative capability have to be regarded as a central issue. In the process, the innovative ability of organizations is highly dependent on whether abilities and knowledge of all employees, irrespective of their hierarchy levels, are used. This demands the participation of all parties involved, as it is realized in participation-oriented organization forms, as well as the participation of worker’s representatives within the framework of the German Co-determination Act.

The aims of our study are as follows:

  1. Detailed analysis of the conditions of economically and socially successful process innovations and their linkage with product innovations as well as developing guidelines for co-determination
  2. Investigation of the relationship between employees’ direct participation and representative participation through work councils
  3. Investigation of questions regarding the realization of co-determination that are still controversial

In general, the goal is to find out if and how companies’ innovative capability and the advancement of employees’ interests can be achieved simultaneously through co-determination.

Method:

In order to investigate the reality and possibilities of innovation and co-determination, case-studies of successful, as well as failed process innovations are conducted. This will occur in both very innovative vs. rather traditional companies. For every case, 3-5 interviews are carried out with the people most involved. The interviewees will also be asked to fill in questionnaires on important process aspects, as well as the company’s innovative culture afterwards. The boards of management involved will get differentiated feedback on potential improvement possibilities in a manner that ensures people’s anonymity. The case studies help to substantiate very concrete implementation problems and possibilities. The target number of case studies (approx. 32) also allows differentiated quantitative analyses that provide sound scientific foundations for societal, political and scientific discussions and strategies. 

References:

  • Kirsch, W., Scholl, W. & Paul, G. (1984). Mitbestimmung in der Unternehmungspraxis - eine empirische Bestandsaufnahme. München: Planungs- und Organisationswissenschaftliche Schriften.
  • Scholl, W. & Kirsch, W. (1986). Business policy and codetermination. In E. Witte & H. J. Zimmermann (eds.), Empirical research on organizational decision-making (351-383). Amsterdam: North Holland.
  • Scholl, W. (1986). Codetermination and the quality of working life. In R. N. Stern & S. McCarthy (eds.), The organizational practice of democracy (153-174). New York: Wiley.
  • Scholl, W. (1987). Codetermination and the ability of firms to act in the Federal Republic of Germany. International Studies of Management & Organization, 17 (2), 27-37.
  • Krause, D. E. (2004). Macht und Vertrauen in Innovationsprozessen. Ein empirischer Beitrag zu einer Theorie der Führung. Wiesbaden: Deutscher Universitätsverlag.
  • Scholl, W. (2004). Innovation und Information. Wie in Unternehmen neues Wissen produziert wird (Unter Mitarbeit von Lutz Hoffmann und Hans-Christof Gierschner). Göttingen: Hogrefe.
  • Scholl, W. (2005). Grundprobleme der Teamarbeit und ihre Bewältigung - Ein Kausalmodell. In M. Högl & H. G. Gemünden (Hrsg.), Management von Teams. Theoretische Konzepte und empirische Befunde (3. Aufl., S. 33-66). Wiesbaden: Gabler.
  • Scholl, W. (2007). Innovationen – Wie Unternehmen neues Wissen produzieren und etablieren. In H. Hof & U. Wengenroth (Hrsg.), Innovationsforschung – Ansätze, Methoden, Grenzen und Perspektiven (S. 271-300). Münster: LIT.


 

  Processes of Power and Social Influence

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In adopting sociological definitions, power (restrictive control) is here defined as promoting one’s own interests against the interests of others, whereas influence (promotive control) is defined as a social impact without violating the interests of the other party. In a quasi-experimental 2x2 design, subjects are asked to remember daily situations of power and influence from the active (wielder) and the passive (target) perspective. Processes of power or restrictive control are markedly different from those of social influence: They lead to negative emotional reactions, to reactance or helplessness, they put the relationship at risk and, especially, they hinder the production of knowledge which could be produced through more open and intensive discussions.

A new area of research is the study of determinants and outcomes of manipulative actions. Manipulation is understood as a covert action of power. This means on the one hand that the action is viewed as concurring with the interest of the manipulated person which would therefore be perceived as social influence (see the definition above). Thus, the manipulated person may only later on or may never became aware of the manipulative action. One study on this subject is already finished and a second one is in progress.

References:

  • Scholl, W. (in press). Das Janus-Gesicht der Macht. Persönliche und gesellschaftliche Konsequenzen Rücksicht nehmender versus rücksichtsloser Einwirkung auf andere. In B. Simon (Hrsg.), Macht: Zwischen aktiver Gestaltung und Missbrauch. Göttingen: Hogrefe.
  • Scholl, W. (2004). Innovation und Information. Wie in Unternehmen neues Wissen produziert wird (Unter Mitarbeit von Lutz Hoffmann und Hans-Christof Gierschner). Göttingen: Hogrefe. (Innovation and information. How enterprises produce new knowledge)
  • Klocke, U. (2004). Effects of power on team processes and performance: Does the way in which power is used make a difference? Paper for the 8th International Workshop on Teamworking (IWOT 8), 16. -17.09.2004, Trier.
  • Klocke, U. (2004). Folgen von Machtausübung und Einflussnahme für Wissenszuwachs und Effektivität in Kleingruppen. Berlin: Dissertation.de. [Effects of restrictive and promotive control on knowledge acquisition and effectiveness in small groups]
  • Scholl, W. (2001). Effects of promotive and restrictive control on economic performance. In F. Butera & G. Mugny (Eds.), Social influence in social reality. Promoting individual and social change (pp. 75-86). Seattle et al.: Hogrefe & Huber.
  • Scholl, W. (1999). Restrictive control and information pathologies in organizations. Journal of Social Issues, 55, 101-118.
  • Buschmeier, U. (1995). Macht und Einfluss in Organisationen. Göttingen: Cuvillier.
  • Scholl, W. (1994). Conceptually differentiating power and influence through the Interpersonal Power Inventory. Paper, presented at the 23rd International Congress of Applied Psychology, July 17 - 22, 1994, Madrid, Spain.
  • Scholl, W. (1992). Politische Prozesse in Organisationen. In E. Frese (Hrsg.), Handwörterbuch der Organisation (3. Aufl.) (Sp. 1993-2004). Stuttgart: Poeschel.
  • Scholl, W. (1992). The social production of knowledge. In M.v. Cranach, W. Doise & G. Mugny (Eds.), Social representations and the social bases of knowledge (pp. 37-42). Bern: Huber.



  Social Cognition and Symbolic Interaction

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The paradigm of social cognition in social psychology is individualistic in its orientation: Only the subject "the human being" is social, but the focus is on the individual information processing. Symbolic interaction also deals with individual cognition, but the main focus is on social processes of communication as a part of social structures. Both, social cognition and symbolic interactionism, can be fruitfully connected to each other. In a first experiment we tested differing assumptions of attribution theory and symbolic interactionism. The result supported the assumptions of symbolic interactionism: By establishing a working consensus the mutual biases of self-serving attributions disappeared. In a further experiment we looked at the interdependence of intra- and interpersonal influences in getting-acquainted processes considering the self-perception of two individuals, I(i) and A(a), the perceptions of the other person I(a) and A(i), the imagined self-appraisals I(A(a)) and A(I(i), and finally the imagined other-appraisal I(A(i)) and A(I(a)). The two basic questions were: How strong are the influences of intrapersonal (socio-cognitive) compared to those of interpersonal (symbolic-interactionist) effects on perceptions? Do perceptions get more "realistic" during the process of interaction in the sense of a convergence of different perspectives (e.g. do the perceptions A(I(a)) and I(A(i)) converge with A(i) and I(a))?

Experimental investigation of the Affect Control Theory

David Heise’s Affect Control Theory (ACT) (1979, 2007) is a sociological theory of action and emotions which was developed on the basis of Osgood’s “Semantic Differential” as well as psychological Consistency Theories (e.g. Heider’s “Balance Theory”). The ACT’s main postulate holds that people behave towards others so as to maintain the emotions they feel towards themselves and towards the other. The theory is formulated in mathematically very specific terms and – by means of a computer simulation - allows very precise predictions about social interaction processes. A comprehensive delineation of the ACT can be found at: http://www.indiana.edu/~socpsy/ACT/.

The first step of our investigation was to compile an affective lexicon for the German language of about 1100 German words on the basis of the three dimensions of the “Semantic Differential” (valence, potency and arousal), i.e. the words were rated by 30-60 individuals. In addition, we reassessed parts of a smaller lexicon compiled earlier (1990) by Andreas Schneider, University of Mannheim (now Texas Tech University), and found very high stability coefficients.

The second step was to experimentally assess the predictive capability of the ACT. First, managers’ and employees’ behaviour in different ACT-simulations was investigated. The results showed that ACT predicts many findings already well known from psychological research on leadership (e.g. about emotions in leadership dyads, the probability of compliance as a function of different management styles or the devaluation of employees through the use of power). Now the rather precise ACT predictions of the computer simulation are being empirically examined in two experiments.

Reference:

  • Heise, D.R. (1979). Understanding Events: Affect and the Construcion of Social Action. New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Röbke, C. (1996). Attribution oder symbolische Interaktion? Betrachtung von typischen Attributionsfehlern aus der Sicht des symbolischen Interaktionismus. Unveröff. Diplomarbeit, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin.




  Group Research

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The lead-in to group research goes back to the years 1972 - 1975 with the dissertation by Kiessler and Scholl. Subsequent to the experimental literature and also to the experiments with autonomous work groups we formulated two causal models of group work - one model on the individual level and the other on the group level. The goal was to explain the productivity of the group and the individual gain of knowledge. To explain these aspects we looked at the distribution of power and the different involvement in group work in hierarchical, egalitarian and unstructured groups. Work on group research was reintroduced into our work in the late eighties with several dissertations which picked up new questions in the field but also with the innovation project (see above). Group research has now been intensified, facilitated by a new group-laboratory that has been installed for our research in the institute.

Subsequent to the critical analysis of experimental group research (see reference: Scholl, 1997) we are developing practically orientated group tasks designed especially for students. They are supposed to realize two major goals at the same time. First, they are part of the research program and secondly, they are supposed to make the students more sensitive to problems related to communication and cooperation in group tasks. We offer preparation classes in "communication and cooperation" carried out by student assistants, followed by self-experience classes carried out experienced trainers. Both classes are aimed to train communication and cooperation abilities, which are needed by all professional psychologists.

References:

  • Meyer, B., Scholl, W., & Zhang, Z. (2007). Predicting task performance with elicitation of non-explicit knowledge. In N. Gronau (Ed.), 4th Conference on Professional Knowledge Management – Experiences and Visions (S. 303-311). Berlin: GITO.
  • Hertel, G. & Scholl, W. (2006). Grundlagen der Gruppenarbeit in Organisationen. In B. Zimolong & U. Konradt (Hrsg.), Enzyklopädie der Psychologie - Ingenieurpsychologie (S. 181-216). Göttingen: Hogrefe.
  • Scholl, W. (2005). Grundprobleme der Teamarbeit und ihre Bewältigung - Ein Kausalmodell. In M. Högl & H. G. Gemünden (Hrsg.), Management von Teams. Theoretische Konzepte und empirische Befunde (3. Aufl., S. 33-66). Wiesbaden: Gabler.
  • Klocke, U. (2004). Folgen von Machtausübung und Einflussnahme für Wissenszuwachs und Effektivität in Kleingruppen. Berlin: Dissertation.de. [Effects of restrictive and promotive control on knowledge acquisition and effectiveness in small groups]
  • Scholl, W. (2003a). Modelle effektiver Teamarbeit eine Synthese. In S. Stumpf & A. Thomas (Hrsg.), Teamarbeit und Teamentwicklung (S. 3-34). Göttingen: Hogrefe. (Models of effective teamwork a synthesis)
  • Brauner, E. (2003). Informationsverarbeitung in Gruppen: Transaktive Wissenssysteme. In A. Thomas & S. Stumpf (Hrsg.), Teamarbeit und Teamentwicklung (S. 57-83). Göttingen: Verlag für angewandte Psychologie.
    "Information processing in groups: Transactive knowledge systems"
  • Brauner, E. (2002). Transactive knowledge systems in groups and organizations. unpublished Habilitation Thesis. Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin.
  • Brauner, E. (2002). Informationsverarbeitungsprozesse in Gruppen. In G. Wenninger (Hrsg.), Lexikon der Psychologie. Heidelberg: Spektrum Akademischer Verlag. "Information processing in groups"
  • Scholl, W. (1997). Gruppenarbeit: Die Kluft zwischen sozialpsychologischer Theoriebildung und organisationspsychologischer Anwendung. Gruppendynamik, 28, 381-403.
  • Scholl, W. (1996). Effective teamwork - A theoretical model and a test in the field. In E. Witte & J. Davis (Eds.), Understanding group behavior (Vol.2) (pp. 127-146), Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
  • Pelz, J. (1995). Gruppenarbeit via Computer. Sozialpsychologische Aspekte eines Vergleichs zwischen direkter Kommunikation und Computerkonferenz. Frankfurt/M.: Lang.
  • Jüngling, C. (1995). Politik, Macht und Entscheidungen in Projektgruppen. Münster: Waxmann
  • Brauner, E. (1994). Soziale Interaktion und mentale Modelle. Planungs- und Entscheidungsprozesse in Planspielgruppen. Münster: Waxmann.
  • Scholl, W. & Kiessler, K. (1990). Systemebenen in der Gruppenforschung. In E. Witte (Hrsg.), Sozialpsychologie und Systemtheorie (219-231). Braunschweig: Braunschweiger Studien zur Erziehungs- und Sozialarbeitswissenschaft.
  • Kiessler, K. & Scholl, W. (1976). Partizipation und Macht in aufgabenorientierten Gruppen - Ein Feldexperiment zur Theorie der organisatorischen Bedingtheit von Gruppenprozessen. Frankfurt: Haag & Herchen.



  Innovation, Information and Networks

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The project was a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of 42 cases of successful and unsuccessful processes of innovation. The goal of the study was to determine the influence of faulty communication and information processes on the success of innovation. Additionally, a theoretical model about the effectiveness of social systems was tested as well as models of decision-making processes. From the case studies, a theory of evolutionary rationality was developed which helps the understanding of how to produce new and more valid knowledge.

Innovation research has been extended with a project, financed by the German Ministry of Education and Research, on 'Regional innovation networks'. We investigate - via our applied research and development institute artop - the communication and management processes in these innovation networks. The basic hypothesis is that good communication and coordination will further the production of new knowledge, the success of innovations, and the economic growth in these networks.

References:

  • Scholl, W. (2007). Innovationen - Wie Unternehmen neues Wissen produzieren und etablieren. In U. Wengenroth (Hrsg.), Innovationsforschung - Ansätze, Methoden, Grenzen und Perspektiven (S. 271-300). Münster: LIT.
  • Scholl, W. (2006). Evolutionäres Ideenmanagement. In Tom Sommerlatte & Georg Beyer (Hrsg.), Innovationskultur und Ideenmanagement (S. 163-193). Düsseldorf: Symposion.
  • Scholl, W. (2004). Innovation und Information. Wie in Unternehmen neues Wissen produziert wird (Unter Mitarbeit von Lutz Hoffmann und Hans-Christof Gierschner). Göttingen: Hogrefe. (Innovation and information. How enterprises produce new knowledge)
  • Müller, B., Wiechmann, T., Scholl, W., Bachmann, T. & Habisch, B. (Hrsg.). (2002). Kommunikation in regionalen Innovationsnetzen. München und Mering: Hampp. (Communication in regional innovation networks)
  • Scholl, W. (1999). Restrictive control and information pathologies in organizations. Journal of Social Issues, 55, 101-118.
  • Scholl, W. (1996). Effective teamwork - A theoretical model and a test in the field. In E. Witte & J. Davis (Eds.), Understanding group behavior (Vol.2) (pp. 127-146), Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
  • Scholl, W., Hoffmann, L. & Gierschner, H.-C. (1993). Innovation und Information. Wie in Unternehmen neues Wissen produziert wird. DFG-Abschlussbericht: Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin. (Innovation and information. The production of new knowledge in firms.)
  • Scholl, W. (1991). Die mehrstufige Evolution des Wissens in sozialen Systemen. In D. Frey (Hrsg.), Bericht über den 37. Kongress der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Psychologie in Kiel 1990 (Band 2) (S. 629-632). Göttingen: Hogrefe.
  • Gierschner, H.-C. (1991). Information und Zusammenarbeit bei Innovationsprozessen. Frankfurt/M.: Lang.
  • Scholl, W. (1990). Informationspathologien bei innovativen Entscheidungsprozessen. In H.-E. Gramatzki, F. Klinger & H.G. Nutzinger (Hrsg.), Wissenschaft, Technik und Arbeit: Innovationen in Ost und West (409-429). Kassel: VWL-inform.



  Mobility

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In collaboration with our applied research institute "artop" we completed several research projects in the field of mobility and traffic psychology, for instance "Cars, mobility and individual development", "Acceptance of technical restrictions in car use by adolescents", "Predictors of risky mobility behavior", "Car sharing users compared with odinary car users", "Predicting preferences for transporters and buying behavior over time" and several studies on the usabilty and acceptance of technical assistance systems in cars.

As an example a short description is given of the project "Cars, mobility and individual development". "Men and mobility" is a longitudinal study concerning economic, social, and developmental psychological issues. Between 1995 and 1999 teenagers and young adults (16 to 20 years old) answered annually a psychological questionnaire about mobility and related topics (e.g., use of public transportation, possession of a bike or a car, vehicle preferences, attitudes toward technology, attitudes toward the environment). In the second and fourth year of the study we contacted additionally adults between 25 and 40 years old. This design of the study (longitudinal plus two cross-sectional samples plus an adult control sample) enabled us to conduct multiple comparisons. Thereby we could identify and distinguish between general trends in the society, changes depending on development and progessing age (e.g. on obtaining a driver's license from eighteen years up onwards) and changes resulting from a time-dependent socialization influencing whole cohorts. The results show a good predictability in most of the research topics. For the major questions like the importance of general values for mobility behavior, environmental attitudes as predictors of anti-pollution behavior or predicting the intensity of car use, bycicle use and public transportation, complex causal models have been secured.

References:

  • Scholl, W. (2002). Verkehrsmittelnutzung Mobilitätsformen und Mobilitätstypen. In W. Scholl & H. Sydow (Hrsg.), Mobilität im Jugend- und Erwachsenenalter. Eine fünfjährige Längsschnittstudie zu Mobilitätsformen, Fahrzeugvorlieben, Freizeit- und Risikoverhalten und deren Abhängigkeit von Umwelt- und Technikeinstellungen, Werten und Persönlichkeit (S. 173-249). Münster: Waxmann.
  • Scholl, W. & Sydow, H. (Hrsg.). (2002). Mobilität im Jugend- und Erwachsenenalter. Eine fünfjährige Längsschnittstudie zu Mobilitätsformen, Fahrzeugvorlieben, Freizeit- und Risikoverhalten und deren Abhängigkeit von Umwelt- und Technikeinstellungen, Werten und Persönlichkeit. Münster: Waxmann.
  • Klocke, U., Gawronski, B. & Scholl, W. (2001). Einstellungen zu Umwelt und Mobilität bei Jugendlichen: Gesellschaftliche Trends, Generationenunterschiede und Alterseffekte. Umweltpsychologie, 5, 10-33. (Attitudes of young people toward the environment and mobility: Societal trends, generational differences, and effects of age)
  • Bachmann, T., Gawronski, B. & Scholl, W. (1999). Werthaltungen und Freizeitmobilität. In Brannolte, U., Axhausen, K., Dienel, H.-L. & Rade, A. (Hrsg.), Freizeitverkehr – Innovative Analysen und Lösungsansätze in einem multidisziplinären Handlungsfeld (S. 77-88). Berlin: Technische Universität. (Value orientations and leisure mobility)



  Knowledge Management

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Knowledge management research is quite heterogenous - a patchwork of different opinions, disciplines, and methods. To find (and give) more orientation to the field we conducted an international, interdisciplinary Delphi study on knowledge management. It showed clearly that the human factor and the closely connected organizational aspects should be prime topics of research instead of the still dominating IT-systems. In a subsequent study, Bertolt Meyer compared a global - unsuccessful - KM system with a local, "handmade", and relatively successful system within a multinational service system. Here, the determinants of success could be quite well established. The dissertation of Bertolt Meyer will tackle the poblem of locating and - possibly - managing implicit knowledge.

Within the "Innovation and Information" project, information pathologies have been researched which imply a failure of knowledge processes. The detection of such information pathologies shall be improved in two further dissertations (Susanne Hopf, Andrea von Kopp).

On a more general level, a theory of knowledge production has been developed which encompasses all human system levels, from individual over group, organizational unto societal and global processes (Chap. 8 of the book on innovation). This theory is a good base for the more specific questions of knowledge management.

References:

  • Meyer, B., Scholl, W., & Zhang, Z. (2007). Predicting task performance with elicitation of non-explicit knowledge. In N. Gronau (Ed.), 4th Conference on Professional Knowledge Management – Experiences and Visions (S. 303-311). Berlin: GITO.
  • Scholl, W. (2007). Einfluss nehmen und Einsicht gewinnen – gegen die Verführung der Macht. Wirtschaftspsychologie aktuell, 14 (4), 15-22.
  • Hopf, S., Prümper, J. & Scholl, W. (2005). Fragebogen zur Identifikation von Wissensbarrieren (WiBa). In N. Gronau, P. Pawlowski, T. Schildhauer & P. Schütt (Hrsg.), Wissensmanagement – Motivation, Organisation, Integration (S. 165-172). München: Tagungsband zur KnowTech 2005.
  • Meyer, B. & Scholl, W. (2005). Comparison of paradigmatic views in knowledge management: an empirical case study on shortcomings in KM. In O. K. Ferstl, E. J. Sinz, S. Eckert & T. Isselhorst (Eds.), Wirtschaftsinformatik 2005 (pp. 1003-1022). Heidelberg: Physica.
  • Scholl, W., König, C., Meyer, B., & Heisig, P. (2004). The future of knowledge management - An international Delphi study. Journal of Knowledge Management, 8, 19-35.
  • Scholl, W. (2004). Innovation und Information. Wie in Unternehmen neues Wissen produziert wird (Unter Mitarbeit von Lutz Hoffmann und Hans-Christof Gierschner). Göttingen: Hogrefe. (Innovation and information. How enterprises produce new knowledge)
  • Scholl, W. & Heisig, P. (2003). The future of knowledge management - An international Delphi study. In K. Mertins, P. Heisig, & J. Vorbeck (Eds.), Knowledge management. Best practices in Europe (2nd ed., pp. 179-190). Berlin: Springer.
  • Scholl, W., König, C. & Meyer, B. (2003). Die Zukunft des Wissensmanagements: Der Faktor Mensch? Ausgewählte Ergebnisse der Delphi-Studie: "The Future of Knowledge Management". Wirtschaftspsychologie, 10, 7-13.




  Emotional Ability

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Despite of growing public interest (e.g. http://www.time.com/time/classroom/psych/unit5_article1.html), the conceptions of emotional intelligence (EI) are far from homogeneous. In fact, there is considerable scientific debate in this area (cf. Matthews, Zeidner, & Roberts, 2003) and some severe criticism (e.g. Schuler 2002).

Given that emotional intelligence as an umbrella term isn’t established yet, it seems to be fruitful to focus on more specific emotional abilities. The first goal is to understand the current problems in EI research. Afterwards, the validity and utility of certain, carefully operationalized, abilities can be studied in order to decide whether there is the necessity for a new construct representing cognitive abilities in an emotional domain.

One interesting starting point for such a line of research is a paradigm developed in social cognition research, namely affective forecasting (e.g. Wilson and Gilbert, 2005). In this tradition, the prediction of future affective states is very important because they are said to guide our decisions. For example, the forecast of utter happiness in the sun should make us plan a beach vacation instead of a hiking trip. From a perspective of individual differences, certain questions arise. Do people differ in affective forecasts and if so, should we be able to make accurate predictions?

These and similar questions regarding emotional abilities can be covered. Please contact me for further information (turss@rz.hu-berlin.de).

 

Literature:


  • Wilson, T. D. & Gilbert, D. T. (2005). Affective forecasting: Knowing what to want. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 14, 131-134.
  •  
  • Matthews, G., Zeidner, M., & Roberts, R. D. (2003). Emotional intelligence. Science and myth. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  •  
  • Schuler, H. (2002). Emotionale Intelligenz - ein irreführender und unnötiger Begriff. Zeitschrift für Personalpsychologie(1), 138-140.




  General Theoretical Work

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The following refers to work with a major focus on theoretical aspects and which doesn’t easily fit into the other projects mentioned above. The best overview is offered by the publications on social interaction, which shall be reworked and expanded next year.

Over the last years, our general theoretical work increasingly and mainly focused on the study of affiliation, power and activation as basic socio-emotional dimensions which have been independently found in non-verbal and verbal communication, in feelings, behaviour and in personality research (Scholl, 2008).

This is more closely explored in Ingo Jacobs’s doctoral thesis (2008) for the dimensions of affiliation and power respectively dominance in the areas of personality and social relationships. In Tobias Schröder’s doctoral thesis (2008), the relationship between verbal expressions and behaviour is studied on the three dimensions of the semantic differential by means of the Affect Control Theory. Carsten Schermuly’s current PhD project examines the quality of a specifically developed observation instrument – the Discussion Coding Instrument (DCI). Besides other facets, the instrument incorporates as aspects of a relationship the first two or even all three basic dimensions. It is planned to experimentally examine leadership and empowerment and to analyse them by means of the DCI.

In order to carry our research on these three basic dimensions beyond university and to realize its potential for interdisciplinary integration of theories, a Wiki about interaction and communication will be developed by about mid-2009 and started with a workshop. In the form of an advanced textbook, the Wiki will give a thorough overview of and further advance the many facets and sub-themes of interaction and communication. For more information see Wiki InteractCommunicate

Reference:

  • Jacobs, I. (2008). Interpersonaler Circumplex: Validierung der Interpersonalen Adjektivliste und Analyse interpersonaler Komplementarität in engen persönlichen Beziehungen. Dissertation, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin.
  • Scholl (2008). The socio-emotional basis of human cognition, communication, and interaction. Paper, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin.
  • Schröder, T. (2008, in Vorb.). Die Theorie der Affektsteuerung als allgemeine Theorie der sozialen Interaktion. Dissertation, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin.
  • Jacobs, I. & Scholl, W. (2007). Übersetzung und Validierung der Skala zur Erfassung übermäßiger Communion von Helgeson und Fritz. Diagnostica, 53(2), 57-67.
  • Scholl, W. (2007). Grundkonzepte der Organisation. In H. Schuler (Hrsg.), Lehrbuch der Organisationspsychologie (4., aktual. Aufl., S. 515-556). Bern: Huber.
  • Scholl (2007). Plädoyer für eine sozialere, interdisziplinärere und anwendbarere Sozialpsychologie. Zeitschrift für Sozialpsychologie, 38, 273-284.
  • Scholl, W. (2007). Organisationstheorien. In H. Schuler & K. Sonntag (Hrsg.), Handbuch der Arbeits- und Organisationspsychologie (S. 66-73). Göttingen: Hogrefe.
  • Jacobs, I. & Scholl, W. (2005). Interpersonale Adjektivliste (IAL): Die empirische Umsetzung theoretischer Circumplex-Eigenschaften für die Messung interpersonaler Stile. Diagnostica, 51, 145-155.
  • Scholl, W. (2004). Grundkonzepte der Organisation. In H. Schuler (Hrsg.), Lehrbuch der Organisationspsychologie (515-556). Göttingen: Hogrefe.
  • Scholl, W. (1998) Das Sozio-emotionale Apriori des Menschen. Typoscript, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin.
  • Scholl, W. (1998). Personalpolitik als Ergebnis politischer Entscheidungsprozesse. In A. Martin & W. Nienhüser (Hrsg.), Personalpolitik. Wissenschaftliche Erklärung der Personalpraxis (S. 195-236). München und Mering: Hampp. (siehe auch Typoscript, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin: Politische Entscheidungsprozesse als Kern einer integrativen Organisationspsychologie).
  • Scholl, W. (1991). Soziale Interaktion: Ein interdisziplinärer Bezugsrahmen (2., verb. Aufl.). Universität Göttingen: Institut für Wirtschafts- und Sozialpsychologie, IWSP-Bericht 20.
  • Scholl, W. (1990). Die Produktion von Wissen zur Bewältigung komplexer organisatorischer Situationen. In R. Fisch & M. Boos (Hrsg.), Vom Umgang mit Komplexität in Organisationen (107-128). Konstanz: Universitätsverlag.
  • Scholl, W. (1987). Führung, philosophische Grundlagen. In A. Kieser, G. Reber & R. Wunderer (Hrsg.), Handwörterbuch der Führung (Sp. 1701-1707). Stuttgart: Poeschel




  Participation and Co-determination

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The total project consisted of 3 separate field surveys: (i) The reality of co-determination as viewed by management and the works council. (ii) A survey about the values of supervisory board members representing capital owners and employees. (iii) A survey about the quality of the works council as viewed by employees and the representatives themselves. The survey (i) was carried out with three members from management and three members from the works council. They were asked about the impact of special German laws regulating employees’ rights to co-determination. The following aspects were examined: Are the legal regulations a threat to the companies ability to act (this was the main objection raised by employers)? Do the regulations serve the employees (or are they just a creation of jobs for labor union officials, as some critics have claimed)? Does a modern management serve the employees better than works councils? Are the legal regulations consistent with the need to survive in market economies? How big is the influence of the works council on general policies of the company, on personnel and investment policies? How do concrete decision making processes change as a result of the influence of the works council? Is the supervisory board (capital owners and employees representatives) an appropriate way of co-determination or would it be better to strengthen the representation of labor unions?

References:

  • Scholl, W. (1987). Codetermination and the ability of firms to act in the Federal Republic of Germany. International Studies of Management & Organization, 17 (2), 27-37.
  • Scholl, W. (1986). Codetermination and the quality of working life. In R. N. Stern & S. Mc-Carthy (eds.), The organizational practice of democracy (153-174). New York: Wiley
  • Scholl, W. & Kirsch, W. (1986). Business policy and codetermination. In E. Witte & H. J. Zimmermann (eds.), Empirical research on organizational decision-making (351-383). Amsterdam: North Holland.
  • Kemper, H.-J. (1986). Die Vertretung von Arbeitnehmerinteressen durch den Betriebsrat - eine empirische Untersuchung. München: Verlag Barbara Kirsch
  • Kirsch, W., Scholl, W. & Paul, G. (1984). Mitbestimmung in der Unternehmungspraxis - eine empirische Bestandsaufnahme. München: Planungs- und Organisationswissenschaftliche Schriften.
  • Kirsch, W. & Scholl, W. (1983). Was bringt die Mitbestimmung: Eine Gefährdung der Handlungsfähigkeit und/oder Nutzen für die Arbeitnehmer? Ergebnisse einer empirischen Untersuchung. Die Betriebswirtschaft, 43, 541-562.
  • Rosenkind, A. (1981). Werte und Macht - Eine empirische Analyse der Wertsysteme von Führungskräften und Arbeitnehmervertretern im Einflussbereich der Mitbestimmung. München: Verlag Barbara Kirsch.
  • Scholl, W. & Blumschein, H. (1979). Personalplanung und Personalpolitik in der Rezession. Frankfurt: RKW.
  • Kirsch, W. & Scholl, W. (1977). Demokratisierung - Gefährdung der Handlungsfähigkeit organisatorischer Führungssysteme? Die Betriebswirtschaft, 37, 235-246.




  Computer Mediated Communication and Internet

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In first experiments with 4 interconnected computers we compared direct with computer mediated communication in a group problem-solving task. The differences were much smaller than suggested by previous studies reported in the literature. The next step was a survey at the University and external research institutes in Göttingen to determine how widespread and how often computer mediated communication is actually used. This was followed by a representative survey in Germany about substitutional effects of computer mediated communication on direct conversation, telephone calls and letters. Further, we investigated several determinants of starting with and intensifying computer mediated communication by e-mail and mailing lists.

Research Project: Organizational evaluation of the initiative "schools going to internet"

schools going to internetThe goal of the study is an in-depth evaluation of reasons for the possible success and failure of the initiative. To do this we shall take different cases from selected schools in order to extract supportive and hindering conditions for the use of the internet and the implementation of the initiative. With the (interim) results it will be possible to give detailed advice for practical measures for an easy adoption, widespread implementation and a permanent institutionalization. Closely related is the question of whether there is not only a successful assimilation of the new technology into school-life, but also of whether there will be an accommodation, which means that the schools themselves will change as a result of the use of new technologies. As our theoretical framework we use findings from innovation and organizational research.

References:

  • Scholl, Wolfgang & Prasse, Doreen (2001): Was hemmt und was fördert die schulische Internet-Nutzung? Ergebnisse einer Evaluation der Initiative "Schulen ans Netz". Computer und Unterricht, 41, S. 22-32.
  • Prasse, D.& Scholl, W. (2001). Wie funktioniert die Interneteinführung an Schulen? In R. Groner & M. Dubi (Hrsg.), Das Internet und die Schule. Bisherige Erfahrungen und Perspektiven für die Zukunft (S. 63-83). Bern: Huber.
  • Scholl, W. & Pelz, J. (2001). Computervermittelte Kommmunikation in der deutschen Wissenschaft. In B. Batinic (Hrsg.), Internet für Psychologen (S. 337-358). Göttingen: Hogrefe. (Computer mediated communication in German Social Sciences)
  • Scholl, W., Pelz, J. & Rade, J. (1996). Computervermittelte Kommunikation in der Wissenschaft. Münster: Waxmann
  • Pelz, J. (1995). Gruppenarbeit via Computer. Sozialpsychologische Aspekte eines Vergleichs zwischen direkter Kommunikation und Computerkonferenz. Frankfurt/M.: Lang.
  • Heldt, P., Rade, J. & Scholl, W. (1992). Erfahrungen mit universitärer Kommunikation via Computer. In K. Dette & P.J. Pahl (Hrsg.), Multimedia, Vernetzung und Software für die Lehre (S. 169-177). Heidelberg: Springer.

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